Information on IPD (Invasive Pneumococcal Disease) and IPD-related diseases

What is Invasive Pnemococcal Disease (IPD)?

  • Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD) is an acute bacterial disease caused by Streptococcus pnemoniae or pneumococcus.
  • S. pneumoniae is the leading cause of pneumonia, meningitis and bacteremia, killing an estimated 1.6 million people each year, including 700,000 to 1 million children under 5.

What are the Alarming Facts about Pnemococcal Diseases…

  • Serious pneumococcal diseases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae are the Number 1 vaccine-preventable cause of death in children under the age of five.
  • World Health Organization estimates that up to 1 million children under 5 die each year due to pneumococcal diseases and over 90% of these deaths occur in developing countries.

In the Philippines:

  • 90% of IPD cases were seen among children below 5 years old
  • 78% were less than 2 years of age
  • 1 out of 3 afflicted patients died (35% mortality rate)
What is Penumonia?
  • Pneumococcal Pneumonia is a common but serious infection and inflammation of the lungs caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae.
  • People most at risk of pneumococcal pneumonia are those who have weakened immune system.
They are:
  • Children younger than 2 years old
  • Adults over 65 years old
  • People with certain medical conditions such as chronic heart, lung or liver diseases or sickle-cell anemia.
Sign and Symptoms
Pneumococcal pneumonia may begin suddenly with a severe shaking chill, then followed by
  • High fever
  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath
  • Rapid breathing
  • Chest pains

Other symptoms that may show include:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Headache
  • Tiredness
  • Muscle aches



What is Meningitis?

  • Meningitis is a condition characterized by inflammation of the meninges, which are the fluid-filled membranes that cover the brain and the spinal cord. The most common causes of meningitis are bacteria and viruses.
  • Bacterial Meningitis is less common than viral meningitis but is usually much more serious and can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae is typically the most severe cause of bacterial meningitis.
  • Bacterial meningitis is a very serious condition. Even with the best treatment available, 5-10% of the patients die; in areas where children don’t have aces to prompt treatment, up to 20-25% of patients may die.
  • Many children who survive the infection are left with permanent neurological impairments such as hearing loss, learning disabilities, behavioral problems and lower intelligence compared with their siblings without meningitis.
Signs and Symptoms
  • Fever and chills
  • Severe headache
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Stiff neck (meningismus)
  • Sensitivity to light (photophobia)
  • Sleepiness or unable to fully wake up
  • Feeling of confusion
  • Rapid breathing
  • Agitation
  • Opisthotonos (severe neck stiffness, ultimately resulting in characteristic arched posture- seen in infants or small children)
  • Bulging fontanelles (bulging of the soft spots in a baby’s skull)
  • Poor reading or irritability in children
What is Sepsis?
  • Septicemia or Sepsis is the presence of bacteria in the blood (i.e bacteremia) associated with clinical symptomatology. Sepsis may be caused by a number of bacteria including Streptococcus pneumoniae.
  • Sepsis can affect a person of any age but it is more prevalent in young infants whose immune systems have nit developed enough to fight off overwhelming infections and people whose immune systems are compromised from conditions such as HIV.
  • Once a person has sepsis, the condition typically progresses rapidly.
  • Approximately 50% of people with sepsis die from it.
Signs and Symptoms
  • Newborns and young infants:
  1. Disinterest or difficulty in feeding
  2. Fever (above 38 degrees Celsius rectally) or sometimes low unstable temperatures
  3. Irritability or increased crankiness
  4. Lethargy (not interacting and listless)
  5. Decreased tone( floppiness)
  6. Changes in heart rate- either faster than normal (early sepsis) or significantly slower than normal (late sepsis, usually associated with shock)
  7. Breathing very quickly or difficulty breathing
  8. Periods where the baby seems to stop breathing for more than 10 seconds (apnea)
  9. Jaundice
  • Older children who have sepsis might have a fever (oral temperature above 37.5 degrees Celsius), vomit and complain of feeling like their hearts are racing.


Up to 1 million children die of pneumococcal diseases every year. It can be prevented.

Ask your doctor about the pneumococcal conjugate vacccine (PCV-7).

Disease Prevention through Vaccination

The key to defeating IPD.


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